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Biden will replace the head of the federal housing agency in the wake of a Supreme Court decision.

Credit…Joe Raedle/Getty Images

President Biden is expected on Wednesday to announce new efforts to tackle gun violence, providing money to fund police departments and propelling the White House into the politically contentious debate over how to address a rise in violent crime in many U.S. cities.

The president will also direct the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives to revoke the licenses of gun dealers “the first time that they violate federal law” by failing to run background checks.

Mr. Biden’s speech at the White House, scheduled for 3:30 p.m., comes amid a national reckoning over racism and policing. City leaders are grappling with dueling calls to both improve oversight of their police departments and address soaring homicide rates that administration officials fear will continue through the summer. The president, who ascended to the presidency in part by vowing to prioritize the concerns of Black voters, now must address Republicans who accuse him of being soft on crime, as well as the progressive wing of his own party that is pushing reform.

Mr. Biden does not feel that reforming the police and tackling crime are conflicting goals, the White House press secretary, Jen Psaki, said on Tuesday. “We believe that a central driver of violence is gun violence,” she said, adding that the president “also believes that we need to ensure that state and local governments keep cops on the beat.”

On Wednesday, the administration announced that state and local governments could use their designated $350 billion of coronavirus relief funds to hire police officers to pre-pandemic levels, pay overtime for community policing work, support community-based anti-violence groups and invest in technology to “effectively respond to the rise in gun violence resulting from the pandemic,” according to a statement from the Treasury Department.

Biden administration officials said the president’s remarks would build on previous executive actions, including orders meant to curb the spread of “ghost guns” easily assembled from kits, expanding federal grants for police departments and directing $5 billion in his infrastructure proposal to groups that intervene with those most likely to commit violence.

The Biden administration announced earlier this week that the Justice Department would start five “strike forces” to combat gun trafficking in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Washington and the San Francisco area.

Criminologists have reported that homicide rates in large cities were up more than 30 percent on average last year, and up another 24 percent for the beginning of this year, though overall crime figures have been down during the pandemic.

Some criminal justice advocates are concerned about the possibility that raising alarm over crime could undermine momentum to overhaul law enforcement.

“We must not overreact and we must not repeat the mistakes of the past where crime has been politicized and the solutions have been focused on trying to arrest our way out of the problem,” said Udi Ofer, director of the American Civil Liberties Union’s Justice Division. “If there is a lot of jargon in that speech that feeds the tough-on-crime narrative, then yes, we have a problem.”

A bipartisan compromise on a national policing overhaul has stalled in Congress, despite Mr. Biden urging lawmakers to reach a deal by May 25, the anniversary of the murder of George Floyd by a white police officer in Minneapolis. Democrats continue to debate reducing funding for police departments, while Republicans have seized on the “defund the police” slogan to attack them as weak on public safety.

“If they think they’re just going to pass a few gun laws and everything is going to be fine, they’re absolutely not in touch with the reality of what’s going on across our country,” Representative John Katko, Republican of New York and the ranking member of the House Homeland Security committee, told Fox News on Tuesday.

For some, Mr. Biden’s comments on Wednesday will be a reminder of his political baggage. As a senator, Mr. Biden championed a 1994 crime bill that many experts say fueled mass incarceration, prompting questions during his presidential campaign over his commitment to overhauling the criminal justice system.

Mr. Biden has resisted calls by some members of the Democratic Party to defund police departments, calling instead for using Justice Department grants to encourage them to change and eliminating sentencing disparities.

Mark Calabria, director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency Director, testified on Capitol Hill last June.
Credit…Pool photo by Astrid Riecken

President Biden plans to replace the head of the Federal Housing Finance Agency, which oversees mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, in the wake of a Supreme Court ruling on Wednesday that the president had authority to replace the agency’s director.

A senior White House official said that, in light of the ruling, Mr. Biden would move ahead with plans to replace Mark Calabria, who was appointed by President Donald J. Trump to oversee the agency.

Replacing Mr. Calabria would give Mr. Biden more control over the fate of the mortgage giants, which play an outsized role in the housing market and are central to many homeowners’ ability to afford homes. Fannie and Freddie do not make home loans but instead buy mortgages and package them into securities, providing a guarantee to make investors who buy those securities whole in case of default. That helps keep the cost of 30-year mortgages low.

Mr. Calabria, during his tenure, had overseen the enactment of a number of rules that were seen as critical steps toward ending the federal government’s conservatorship of Fannie and Freddie, which was imposed in 2008 at the start of the financial crisis. Mr. Calabria has favored a move toward privatizing Fannie and Freddie and ending the conservatorship. Many housing advocates and Democrats also favor ending it, but they do not necessarily want Fannie and Freddie put into private hands.

The Supreme Court ruling stems from a dispute between shareholders of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, the government-sponsored mortgage finance giants, and the Treasury Department over $124 billion in payments the two lenders were required to make to the government in the wake of the 2008 housing crisis.

The shareholders said the law creating the Federal Housing Finance Agency, which put the two lenders into conservatorship in 2008, violated the Constitution because it insulated the agency’s director from presidential oversight.

The Supreme Court gave short shrift in its ruling to the argument by investors that the dividend sweeps by Treasury were improper.

The court found that the president did have power to remove the director, saying in its opinion that “the president’s removal power serves important purposes regardless of whether the agency in question affects ordinary Americans by directly regulating them or by taking actions that have a profound but indirect effect on their lives.”

A spokesman for the Federal Housing Finance Agency did not return requests for comment.

Michael Bright, chief executive of the Structured Finance Association, a trade group that supports investors in securitized mortgages and other loans, said the Supreme Court had ruled as many had expected. Mr. Bright said a ruling in the investors’ favor would have led to the federal government “writing an expensive check on the part of taxpayers.” He added, if Mr. Biden didn’t remove Mr. Calabria it would be seen as “political malpractice” in light of the court’s ruling.

Brandi Levy, a Pennsylvania high school student, had expressed her dismay on Snapchat over not making the varsity cheerleading squad.
Credit…Danna Singer/ACLU, via Getty

The Supreme Court on Wednesday ruled that a Pennsylvania school district had violated the First Amendment by punishing a student for a vulgar social-media message sent away from school grounds.

The vote was 8 to 1, with Justice Clarence Thomas dissenting.

The case concerned Brandi Levy, a Pennsylvania high school student who had expressed her dismay over not making the varsity cheerleading squad by sending a colorful Snapchat message to about 250 people.

She sent the message on a Saturday from the Cocoa Hut, a convenience store popular with teenagers. It included an image of Ms. Levy and a friend with their middle fingers raised, along with a string of words expressing the same sentiment. Using a swear word four times, Ms. Levy objected to “school,” “softball,” “cheer” and “everything.”

Though Snapchat messages are meant to vanish not long after they are sent, another student took a screenshot and showed it to her mother, a coach. The school suspended Ms. Levy from cheerleading for a year, saying the punishment was needed to “avoid chaos” and maintain a “teamlike environment.”

Ms. Levy sued the school district, winning a sweeping victory from a divided three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, in Philadelphia. The court said the First Amendment did not allow public schools to punish students for speech outside school grounds, relying on a precedent from a different era.

In 1969, in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, the Supreme Court allowed students to wear black armbands to protest the Vietnam War, saying the students had not “shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.” But disruptive speech, at least on school grounds, could be punished, the court added.

Though the Third Circuit was united in ruling for Ms. Levy, the judges disagreed about the rationale. The majority announced a categorical rule barring discipline for off-campus speech that seemed to limit the ability of public schools to address many kinds of disturbing communications by students on social media, including racist threats and cyberbullying.

In a concurring opinion, Judge Thomas L. Ambro wrote that he would have ruled for Ms. Levy on narrower grounds. It would have been enough, he said, to say that her speech was protected by the First Amendment because it did not disrupt school activities. The majority was wrong, he said, to protect all off-campus speech.

Here are other key rulings announced Wednesday by the Supreme Court:

  • The Supreme Court ruled that a California regulation allowing union organizers to recruit agricultural workers at their workplaces violated the constitutional rights of their employers. The vote was 6 to 3, with the court’s three liberal members in dissent. The ruling was the latest blow to unions from a court that has issued several decisions limiting the power of organized labor.

Senator Jeanne Shaheen, Democrat of New Hampshire, and other senators meet with representatives from the White House on Tuesday on Capitol Hill in Washington to discuss infrastructure proposals.
Credit…Erin Schaff/The New York Times

President Biden’s ambitions for a large-scale investment in the nation’s aging public works system along with other parts of his economic agenda hinge on what has always been the most difficult problem for lawmakers: agreeing on how to pay for the spending.

That question has sent a group of centrist senators scrounging to find ways to cover nearly $600 billion in new spending that they want to include as part of a potential compromise plan to invest in roads, broadband internet, electric utilities and other infrastructure projects.

The White House and Republicans have ruled out entire categories of potential ways to raise revenues. The impasse has become the subject of increasingly urgent talks between a large group of Senate Democrats, Republicans, White House officials and, at times, the president himself. Centrist Democrats in the Senate — along with Mr. Biden — have said repeatedly that they want to strike a deal with Republicans.

Among the ideas that senators have discussed in recent days are repurposing unspent coronavirus relief funds, increasing enforcement by the I.R.S. and establishing user fees for drivers, including indexing the gas tax to inflation.

Mr. Biden dispatched aides to Capitol Hill on Tuesday for discussions that his press secretary, Jen Psaki, said yielded progress. Top White House officials are set to meet on Wednesday evening with Senator Chuck Schumer of New York, the majority leader, and Speaker Nancy Pelosi of California. Those discussions will center on infrastructure negotiations as well as a separate effort to move a large chunk of the president’s $4 trillion economic agenda through the Senate without any Republican votes using a procedural mechanism known as reconciliation.

Among those expected to attend the meeting are Brian Deese, the director of the National Economic Council; Steve Ricchetti, a top adviser to Mr. Biden; Louisa Terrell, the director of the White House Office of Legislative Affairs; Shalanda Young, the acting director of the Office of Management and Budget, and Susan E. Rice, who leads the White House Domestic Policy Council, according to an official familiar with the plans.

Kevin McCarthy, the House minority leader, has criticized the bills as empowering Biden appointees like Lina Khan, the new chair of the Federal Trade Commission, to crack down on companies.
Credit…Pool photo by Saul Loeb

House lawmakers on Wednesday began the process of considering a legislative package that would overhaul the nation’s antitrust laws, an attempt to rein in the power of Google, Amazon, Apple and Facebook.

Over the course of the day, members of the House Judiciary Committee are expected to vote on six bills that could block the tech giants from prioritizing their own products online, force them to break off parts of their businesses and generate more resources for the law enforcement agencies that police Silicon Valley. Skeptical lawmakers can propose amendments to the bills or oppose the measures outright.

The move to consider the bills — which were introduced this month — reflects a growing concern about the power of the largest tech companies. The proposals have drawn support from members of both parties, uniting Democrats concerned about out-of-control businesses with Republicans who fear the power of online platforms to police content online.

“The digital marketplace suffers from a lack of competition,” said Representative David Cicilline, Democrat of Rhode Island Democrat and chairman of the subcommittee focused on antitrust. “Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Google are gatekeepers to the online economy.”

The proposals also have their share of critics.

Representative Jim Jordan of Ohio, the top Republican on the Judiciary Committee, and Mark Meadows, the former chief of staff to President Donald J. Trump, said in a Tuesday Fox News opinion column that if “you think Big Tech is bad now, just wait until Apple, Amazon, Facebook and Google are working in collusion with Big Government.” Some California Democrats have also grown concerned that the bills would slow the state’s economic engine.

The tech giants have mounted an aggressive campaign to block the bills. Tim Cook, Apple’s chief executive, has been personally calling members of Congress to express his concerns about the package. Executives at other companies have made statements in recent days opposing the bills. And scores of groups funded by the companies have urged lawmakers to oppose the proposals at Wednesday’s meeting.

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Defense Secretary Lloyd J. Austin III on Wednesday formally endorsed a plan, recommended by a Pentagon commission, that would remove the prosecution of sexual assault cases from the military chain of command.CreditCredit…Stefani Reynolds for The New York Times

Defense Secretary Lloyd J. Austin III on Wednesday formally endorsed changes to the way the military handles sexual assault cases, becoming the first secretary to do so, and told lawmakers he would recommend the revisions to President Biden.

The changes, which were recommended by a Pentagon commission that Mr. Austin convened, do not go as far as those sought by some lawmakers.

“As you know, my first directive as secretary of defense issued on my first full day in the office, was to service leadership about sexual assault,” Mr. Austin said in remarks before the House Armed Services Committee.

“In the coming days, I will present to President Biden my specific recommendations about the commission’s finding, but I know enough at this point to say that I fully support removing the prosecution of sexual assaults and related crimes from the military chain of command,” he said. Saying he would work with Congress to make the changes, as required by law, Mr. Austin added, “We must treat this as the leadership issue it is.”

Right before Mr. Austin spoke, Speaker Nancy Pelosi of California said in a news conference that she would put a bill on the floor that would go further than what Mr. Austin was endorsing. That bill, sponsored by Representative Jackie Speier, Democrat of California, would remove all serious crimes from commanders’ hands. A similar bill has been pushed for nearly a decade by Senator Kirsten Gillibrand, Democrat of New York, but she has faced pushback from the chairman and highest ranking members of the Senate Armed Services Committee.

“We will bring this bill to the floor, it will pass in the House. I hope that it will succeed in the Senate as, as well,” said Ms. Pelosi, who was flanked by Ms. Speier, Ms. Gillibrand and members from both parties who support the measure.

Mr. Austin’s appointed commission recommended the inclusion of a special victims crimes unit inside an independent prosecution system, which would also cover domestic violence, but not other serious crimes as Ms. Gillibrand and Ms. Speier’s measures would.

This week, several military service chiefs expressed resistance to the legislation, teeing up a potential legislative battle that Mr. Biden will likely end up having to weigh in on.

Federico Ivan Cuadrado (left), Sahar Alfredo (center) and Laura Alfredo waited after receiving vaccinations during the last days of a mass Covid-19 vaccination site at the New Jersey Institute of Technology in Newark last week.
Credit…Bryan Anselm for The New York Times

On Sunday, the last of 39 mass vaccination centers operated by the U.S. government closed in Newark, the end of an effort that administered millions of Covid-19 shots over five months in 27 states. Many state-run sites are also closed or soon will be.

The United States’ shift away from high-volume vaccination centers is an acknowledgment of the harder road ahead. Health officials are pivoting to the “ground game”: a highly targeted push, akin to a get-out-the-vote effort, to persuade the reluctant to get their shots.

President Biden will travel to Raleigh, N.C., on Thursday to spotlight this time-consuming work. It will not be easy — as Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the president’s coronavirus response coordinator, discovered last weekend, when he went door-knocking in Anacostia, a majority-Black neighborhood in Washington, with Mayor Muriel E. Bowser.

In an interview on Tuesday, Dr. Fauci said he and the mayor spent 90 minutes talking to people on their front porches. He said he persuaded six to 10 people to get their shots, though he did encounter some flat refusals.

“We would say, ‘OK, come on, listen: Get out, walk down the street, a couple of blocks away. We have incentives, a $51 gift certificate, you can put yourself in a raffle, you could win a year’s supplies of groceries, you could win a Jeep,’” Dr. Fauci said. “And several of them said, ‘OK, I’m on my way and I’ll go.’”

Congressmen John Curtis of Utah’s 3rd district, poses for a portrait in his Washington D.C. office in the Rayburn House office building.
Credit…Ting Shen for The New York Times

When Representative John Curtis quietly approached fellow Republicans to invite them to discuss climate change at a clandestine meeting in his home state of Utah, he hoped a half dozen might attend.

The guest list blew past expectations as lawmakers heard about the gathering and asked to be included. For two days in February, 24 Republicans gathered in a ballroom of the Grand America Hotel in Salt Lake City where they brainstormed ways to get their party to engage on a planetary problem it has ignored for decades.

“Some came with the promise of being anonymous,” Mr. Curtis said in an interview. “It’s terrible that Republicans can’t even go talk about it without being embarrassed.”

For four years under President Donald J. Trump, even uttering the phrase “climate change” was verboten for many Republicans. His administration scrubbed the words from federal websites, tried to censor testimony to Congress and mocked the science linking rising fossil fuel emissions to a warming planet.

Now, many in the Republican Party are coming to terms with what polls have been saying for years: independents, suburban voters and especially young Republicans are worried about climate change and want the government to take action.

“There is a recognition within the G.O.P. that if the party is going to be competitive in national elections, in purple states and purple districts, there needs to be some type of credible position on climate change,” said George David Banks, a former Trump adviser and now a senior fellow at the nonprofit Bipartisan Policy Center, a centrist Washington think tank. Republicans realize it is now “a political liability” to dismiss or avoid discussing climate change, he said.

In Utah, where the furtive February meeting occurred, a group of state Republican lawmakers this month called for polluters to pay a price for emitting carbon dioxide, the main heat-trapping gas.

The same week in Miami, a group of young Republicans held what was billed as the first rally for “conservative” climate action. They carried signs that read “This Is What an Environmentalist Looks Like.”

On Capitol Hill, Kevin McCarthy, the House Republican leader, plans to start a Republican task force on climate change, his staff confirmed.

And on Wednesday Mr. Curtis plans to announce the formation of the Conservative Climate Caucus, aimed at educating his party about global warming and developing policies to counter what the caucus terms “radical progressive climate proposals.” So far 38 Republican House members have joined, his staff said.

Tom Perez at the Democratic National Convention last year.
Credit…Gabriela Bhaskar for The New York Times

Tom Perez, the former Democratic National Committee chairman, on Wednesday began a campaign for governor of Maryland on a platform largely tied to his experience working in President Barack Obama’s administration.

“I’m the son of immigrants from the Dominican Republic, I could have never dreamed the president of the United States would give me the chance to make a difference,” Mr. Perez said in a video announcing his candidacy. “But there’s a lot left to do, and that’s why I’m running for governor.”

Mr. Perez, 59, served in the Justice Department and as labor secretary before Mr. Obama backed him to run the D.N.C. in 2017. He has teased a run for governor since his term as party chairman ended in January. The video is heavy on footage of the former president praising Mr. Perez, calling him “one of the best secretaries of labor in our history.”

He joins a crowded field of candidates to replace Gov. Larry Hogan, a Republican who is barred by term limits from seeking a third term in office, that includes eight Democrats and two Republicans.

Though Mr. Perez has deep connections to national Democratic officials and donors, others in the race have far more recent experience in Maryland politics, including Peter Franchot, the state comptroller, and Rushern Baker, the former Prince George’s County executive, who placed second in Maryland’s 2018 Democratic primary for governor. Mr. Perez was elected to the Montgomery County Council in 2002 and served as Maryland’s labor secretary from 2007 to 2009.

Mr. Perez, in the video announcing his campaign, stood before his home in suburban Washington and promoted his connections to the state. Yet at the end of the video he is shown wearing a Washington Nationals jersey — a rival of Maryland’s baseball team, the Baltimore Orioles.

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Republicans Filibuster Voting Rights Bill

Senate Republicans used the filibuster on Tuesday to block debate on an ambitious Democratic bill aimed at countering a wave of ballot restrictions in G.O.P.-controlled states.

“The For the People Act is about setting basic national standards to make sure that all voters in this country can vote legally in the way that works for them, regardless of what ZIP code they live in, regardless of if they live in a big city or in a suburb or out in a small town in Western Minnesota. It is about reducing the power of big money in our elections by ending secret spending by billionaires and special interests. And it is about making anti-corruption reforms to ensure politicians work for the people, not for themselves.” “The federal takeover elections shouldn’t happen. I urge my colleagues not to support it happening. The American people don’t want to see the things imposed on our election system that are in this bill. And I urge my colleagues to vote against this harmful legislation.” “On this vote, the yeas are 50, the nays are 50. Three-fifths of the senators duly chosen and sworn not having voted in the affirmative, the motion is not agreed to.” “All we wanted to do here on the floor was to bring up the issue of voting rights and debate how to combat these vicious, oftentimes discriminatory voting restrictions. And today, every single Democratic senator stood together in the fight to protect the right to vote in America. Regrettably, our efforts were met by the unanimous opposition of the Republic — of the Senate minority. Once again, Senate Republicans have signed their names in the ledger of history along Donal — alongside Donald Trump, the big lie and voter suppression, to their enduring disgrace.”

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Senate Republicans used the filibuster on Tuesday to block debate on an ambitious Democratic bill aimed at countering a wave of ballot restrictions in G.O.P.-controlled states.CreditCredit…Erin Schaff/The New York Times

The demise of the For the People Act — the far-reaching voting rights bill that Republicans blocked in the Senate on Tuesday — is a crushing blow to progressives and reformers, but it opens up more plausible, if still rocky, paths to reform.

The law, known as H.R. 1 or S. 1, was full of progressive wish list measures — from public financing of elections to national mail-in voting — that all but ensured its failure in the Senate.

But there were roads not taken. Reformers did not add provisions to tackle the most insidious and serious threat to democracy: election subversion, where partisan election officials might use their powers to overturn electoral outcomes. Those concerns have only escalated over the last several months as Republicans have advanced bills that not only imposed new limits on voting, but also afforded the G.O.P. greater control over election administration.

Instead, the bill focused on the serious but less urgent issues that animated reformers at the time it was first proposed in 2019: allegations of corruption in the Trump administration, the rise of so-called dark money in the aftermath of the Supreme Court’s decision in Citizens United, or the spate of voter identification laws passed in the aftermath of President Barack Obama’s election victories.

Originally, the bill was seen as a “political statement” or a “messaging bill,” not as the basis for a realistic legislative effort.

One narrow, yet possible avenue emerged in the final days of the push for H.R. 1: a grand bargain, like the one recently suggested by Joe Manchin III, the moderate Democratic senator from West Virginia who provoked outrage among progressives when he said he would oppose the bill in its current form.

The Manchin compromise resembles H.R. 1 in crucial ways. It does not address election subversion any more than H.R. 1 does. And it still seeks sweeping changes to voting, ethics, campaign finance and redistricting law. But it offers Republicans a national voter identification requirement, while relenting on many of the provisions that provoke the most intense Republican opposition.

Mr. Manchin’s proposal nonetheless provoked intense Republican opposition. Senator Roy Blunt of Missouri derided it as a “Stacey Abrams” bill. And Mitch McConnell, the minority leader from Kentucky, appeared to suggest that no federal election law would earn his support.

Representative James Clyburn, Democrat of South Carolina, speaking during a hearing about Emergent in Washington in May.
Credit…Pool photo by Susan Walsh

Congressional investigators are expanding their inquiry of Emergent BioSolutions, the operator of a troubled Maryland vaccine-making plant, to encompass the firm’s relationship with the two companies that hired it to produce their shots.

In letters dated Tuesday, two House panels asked the companies, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson, to document their efforts to supervise production of their vaccines at Emergent’s factory and to produce all records related to their decisions to hire Emergent as a subcontractor.

The plant, in southeastern Baltimore, has been forced to throw out the equivalent of 75 million doses of Johnson & Johnson’s coronavirus vaccine because of suspected contamination. Deliveries of more than 100 million other doses of both vaccines have been delayed for weeks while regulators check them. The plant has been closed since mid-April while Emergent tries to meet the regulators’ demands to bring its manufacturing up to standard.

The congressional panels began a joint investigation of Emergent’s operations after The New York Times documented months of problems at the Baltimore plant, including a failure to properly disinfect equipment and to protect against viral and bacterial contamination. Among other matters, Democratic lawmakers are looking into whether the company leveraged its contacts with a top Trump administration official, Dr. Robert Kadlec, to win the business of vaccine production, and whether federal officials failed to oversee the firm’s work.

The investigation is being run by the Committee on Oversight and Reform, headed by Carolyn B. Maloney, a New York Democrat, and the Select Subcommittee on the Coronavirus Crisis, headed by James E. Clyburn, a Democrat from South Carolina.

“We are troubled by the impact Emergent’s manufacturing errors have had on the availability of coronavirus vaccine doses, as well as the potential effect on public perceptions regarding the safety and efficacy of these vaccines,” the lawmakers said in the nearly identical letters to the two vaccine developers. “We are also concerned about the circumstances that led AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson to sign contracts with Emergent,” they wrote.

At a congressional hearing last month, Emergent’s founder and executive chairman, Fuad El-Hibri, testified that the Trump administration had been well aware of the risks of relying on the Baltimore plant. “Everyone went into this with their eyes wide open, that this is a facility that had never manufactured a licensed product before,” he said.

Confidential audits obtained by The Times show that both Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca — as well as the division of the Department of Health and Human Services that oversees Emergent’s contract — all found deficiencies at the plant last summer. AstraZeneca’s audit said that the firm had not documented that it had mitigated “high risk” hazards of contamination. It also said that Emergent repeatedly loosened monitoring criteria so it appeared to meet them, but even then failed the tests.

Johnson & Johnson’s audit said that the firm’s “contamination control strategy is deficient” and that monitoring reports for bacteria or other contaminants were filed four to six months late. Emergent has said that it takes all such observations seriously and works expeditiously to address them.

The federal government agreed in May 2020 to pay Emergent $628 million, much of that to reserve production capacity at the Baltimore plant. It also signed billion-dollar contracts with Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca for the doses that Emergent was supposed to produce, and Emergent signed production contracts with the vaccine developers that were expanded in multiyear agreements in July 2020.

Federal officials have now stripped Emergent of its responsibility to manufacture AstraZeneca’s vaccine, lessening the firm’s payments by at least $18 million a month. The factory is expected to eventually reopen and resume manufacturing Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine.

A demonstrator held a picture of Jamal Khashoggi outside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul after his killing in 2018.
Credit…Osman Orsal/Reuters

Four Saudis who participated in the 2018 killing of the Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi received paramilitary training in the United States the previous year under a contract approved by the State Department, according to documents and people familiar with the arrangement.

The instruction occurred as the secret unit responsible for Mr. Khashoggi’s killing was beginning an extensive campaign of kidnapping, detention and torture of Saudi citizens ordered by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, Saudi Arabia’s de facto ruler, to crush dissent inside the kingdom.

The training was provided by the Arkansas-based security company Tier 1 Group, which is owned by the private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management. The company says the training — including “safe marksmanship” and “countering an attack” — was defensive in nature and devised to better protect Saudi leaders. One person familiar with the training said it also included work in surveillance and close-quarters battle.

There is no evidence that the American officials who approved the training or Tier 1 Group executives knew that the Saudis were involved in the crackdown inside Saudi Arabia. But the fact that the government approved high-level military training for operatives who went on to carry out the grisly killing of a journalist shows how intensely intertwined the United States has become with an autocratic nation even as its agents carried out horrific human rights abuses.

The State Department initially granted a license for the paramilitary training of the Saudi Royal Guard to Tier 1 Group starting in 2014, during the Obama administration. The training continued during at least the first year of former President Donald J. Trump’s term.

A State Department spokesman declined to confirm whether it awarded licenses to Tier 1 Group for the Saudi training.

“This administration insists on responsible use of U.S. origin defense equipment and training by our allies and partners, and considers appropriate responses if violations occur,” said the spokesman, Ned Price. “Saudi Arabia faces significant threats to its territory, and we are committed to working together to help Riyadh strengthen its defenses.”

The Biden administration plans to extend the national moratorium on evictions through July, officials said. Activists in Brooklyn called in May for an extension of New York State’s eviction moratorium.
Credit…Justin Lane/EPA, via Shutterstock

The Biden administration plans to extend the national moratorium on evictions, scheduled to expire on June 30, by one month to buy more time to distribute billions of dollars in federal pandemic housing aid, according to two officials with knowledge of the situation.

The moratorium, instituted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention last September to prevent a wave of evictions spurred by the economic downturn associated with the coronavirus pandemic, has significantly limited the economic damage to renters and sharply reduced eviction filings.

Congressional Democrats, local officials and tenant groups have been warning that the expiration of the moratorium at the end of the month, and the lapsing of similar state and local measures, might touch off a new — if somewhat less severe — eviction crisis.

President Biden’s team decided to extend the moratorium by a month after an internal debate at the White House over the weekend. The step is one of a series of actions that the administration plans to take in the next several weeks, involving several federal agencies, the officials said.

Other initiatives include a summit on housing affordability and evictions, to be held at the White House later this month; stepped-up coordination with local officials and legal aid organizations to minimize evictions after July 31; and new guidance from the Treasury Department meant to streamline the sluggish disbursement of the $21.5 billion in emergency aid included in the pandemic relief bill in the spring.

White House officials, requesting anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the issue publicly, said that the one-month extension, while influenced by concerns over a new wave of evictions, was prompted by the lag in vaccination rates in some parts of the country and by other factors that have extended the coronavirus crisis.

Forty-four House Democrats wrote to Mr. Biden and the C.D.C. director, Dr. Rochelle P. Walensky, on Tuesday, urging them to put off allowing evictions to resume. “By extending the moratorium and incorporating these critical improvements to protect vulnerable renters, we can work to curtail the eviction crisis disproportionately impacting our communities of color,” the lawmakers wrote.

Many local officials have also pressed to extend the freeze as long as possible, and are bracing for a rise in evictions when the federal moratorium and similar state and city orders expire over the summer.

Gov. Gavin Newsom of California announced on Monday that his state had set aside $5.2 billion from federal aid packages to pay off the back rent of tenants who fell behind during the pandemic, an extraordinary move intended to wipe the slate clean for millions of renters.

Still, groups representing private landlords maintain that the health crisis that justified the freeze has ended, and that continuing the freeze even for an extra four weeks would be an unwarranted government intrusion in the housing market.

“The mounting housing affordability crisis is quickly becoming a housing affordability disaster fueled by flawed eviction moratoriums, which leave renters with insurmountable debt and housing providers holding the bag,” said Bob Pinnegar, president of the National Apartment Association, a trade group representing owners of large residential buildings.

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